//دانلود رایگان pdf کتاب special tests in musculoskeletal examination an evidence-based guide for clinicians pdf

دانلود رایگان pdf کتاب تست خاص در آزمون اسکلتی عضلانی: راهنمای مبتنی بر شواهد برای پزشکان

special tests in musculoskeletal examination an evidence-based guide for clinicians pdf

special-tests-in-musculoskeletal-examination-an-evidence-based-guide-for-clinicians-pdf

About this book
Clinical examination is the bedrock of diagnosis in musculoskeletal (MSK) medicine. It enables the clinician to both assemble information and to interpret the findings in order to assist in identifying the nature and stage of the patient’s disease or injury, determine the need for further investigations, provide a prognosis, guide treatment and measure outcome. Its big advantage is that it can be used at any stage in the patient’s management and reproduction of the symptoms provides not only immediate feedback but also reassuring evidence, to both clinician and patient, that the source of the pain has been identified. Physical tests are quick and convenient to perform and, in the hands of a skilled practitioner, facilitate appropriate and cost-effective intervention. The proliferation of additional or special tests used in MSK examination over the years has left the clinician with a vast array of physical tests at his or her disposal. All clinicians know that isolating the lesion and planning effective intervention is not about performing lots of tests for the sake of it, but instead selecting the most appropriate examination procedures as part of the clinical reasoning process. With so many tests in the clinical domain, combined with uncertainty concerning their accuracy and reliability, it can be hard for clinicians to determine whether or not the tests they have chosen are in fact providing them with the information they need. In addition, because tests involve both clinical and interpretative skills, results may differ with the level of the tester’s technical expertise, thereby limiting the generalization of results produced from individual studies.

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